What does Artificial Intelligence (AI) mean?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. Some of the activities computers with artificial intelligence are designed for include:- Speech recognition, Learning, Planning, Problem solving.
Definitions of artificial intelligence begin to shift based upon the goals that are trying to be achieved with an Artificial intelligence system. Generally, people invest in AI development for one of these three objectives:
- Build systems that think exactly like humans do (“strong Artificial intelligence”)
- Just get systems to work without figuring out how human reasoning works (“weak Artificial intelligence”)
- Use human reasoning as a model but not necessarily the end goal
Types of artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence can be categorized in any number of ways, but here are two examples.
The first classifies Artificial intelligence systems as either weak Artificial intelligence or strong Artificial intelligence. Weak Artificial intelligence, also known as narrow Artificial intelligence, is an Artificial intelligence system that is designed and trained for a particular task. Virtual personal assistants, such as Apple’s Siri, are a form of weak Artificial intelligence.
Strong Artificial intelligence, also known as artificial general intelligence, is an Artificial intelligence system with generalized human cognitive abilities so that when presented with an unfamiliar task, it has enough intelligence to find a solution. The Turing Test, developed by mathematician Alan Turing in 1950, is a method used to determine if a computer can actually think like a human, although the method is controversial.
Examples of Artificial Intelligence
1. Atuomatic car contorl
First, it should have computer visoin, it can identify the car and people. Second, good control the car aviod the colliosn. And make the best plan to arrive the destination..
2. Self-Repairing Hardware
Researchers at Caltech have made progress on an integrated circuit equipped with sensors and actuators that allow it to heal itself if it suffers any damage. The sensors read temperature, current, voltage, and power and the chip is given a goal state, such as maximum output power. The chip then modifies itself with its actuators and learns how close it is to its goal based on the readings from its sensors. Previous researchers (e.g. D. Mange et. al) have used evolutionary algorithms in the self-repair of programmable logic circuits. The field of embryonics (embryonic electronics) may also lead to hardware that can self-replicate as well as self-repair.
3. Flying drones
This flying drones use video cameras and sensors to translate the environment into a 3D model. There are also some cameras and sensors attached at the ceiling of the room, in order to detect the position of the drones in the room. Trajectory generation algorithm are used to instruct the drones how and where to move. Error calculation algorithm are used to determine a more precise position of a brick that the drone has to place. By a WIFI connection the drones are controlled by a computer, into which the model of the building is loaded initially, then instructed by the computer the drones construct the building.
Applications of Artificial intelligence
1. Game Playing
You can buy machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars. There is some Artificial intelligence in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute force computation–looking at hundreds of thousands of positions. To beat a world champion by brute force and known reliable heuristics requires being able to look at 200 million positions per second.
2. Speech Recognition
Some intelligent systems are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, etc.
3. Understanding Natural Language
Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. Parsing sentences is not enough either. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is presently possible only for very limited domains.
4. Computer Vision
The world is composed of three-dimensional objects, but the inputs to the human eye and computers’ TV cameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs can work solely in two dimensions, but full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views. At present there are only limited ways of representing three-dimensional information directly, and they are not as good as what humans evidently use.
5. Expert Systems
There are some applications which integrate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users.
Artificial Intelligence and the technology are one side of the life that always interest and surprise us with the new ideas, topics, innovations, products …etc. Artificial intelligence is still not implemented as the films representing it(i.e. intelligent robots), however there are many important tries to reach the level and to compete in market, like sometimes the robots that they show in TV. Nevertheless, the hidden projects and the development in industrial companies.
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